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March 31, 2017

History plays a major role in this Friday’s edition of CNN 10. First, Britain is writing history and facing historic challenges in its separation from the European Union. Then, researchers are recreating history by reconstructing a 13th Century man’s face. Historic paintings are seen in a new light thanks to new technology. And a design company is hoping to make history with a skyscraper of the [distant] future.
1. Carrie Lam, who is said to be favored by China, was chosen by an election committee to lead what Special Administrative Region?
2. Name the U.S. Speaker of the House, who recently called off a vote on a Republican health care plan amid concerns that it didn’t have enough support to pass.
3. During what decade (for example, the 1990s) was the last manned mission to the moon completed?
4. When British Prime Minister Theresa May triggered Article 50 this week, the formal process began of separating what two things?
5. Name the storm that made landfall in Australia earlier this week as the equivalent of a powerful hurricane.
6. A legal settlement has set aside at least $87 million for the replacement of water pipes in what troubled U.S. city?
7. To what Iraqi city, where international forces have been battling ISIS since October, are hundreds of additional U.S. troops being deployed?
8. What two-word term, as defined on Thursday’s show, is used to describe cities that shelter people who are in the U.S. illegally?
9. As outlined by Article 50, how long do officials have to complete the Brexit process?
10. Who painted La Bella Principessa, The Last Supper, and The Battle of Anghiari?
CARL AZUZ, CNN 10 ANCHOR: As many as you saw on a meme earlier this week, Fridays are awesome! I’m Carl Azuz at CNN Center.
Your ten minutes of world news explained begins with the countdown to Brexit.
The British exit or separation from the European Union has officially begun. Nine months after a slim majority of British voters chose to leave the E.U., British Prime Minister Theresa May signed Article 50 this week. That’s what gives any E.U. member the right to leave the association on its own.
One reason why the Brexit is so incredibly complicated is legal. Right now, there are 12,000 European Union laws enforced in Britain. They applied to businesses, consumers, workers. And since 1972, these E.U. laws have taken precedence over Britain’s own laws.
With that changing, as the nation separates itself from the E.U., it has to convert those laws to suit its own country. So, some will be kept, some replaced, some eliminated. One Brexit official says the government priority was getting the right deal for every single person in Britain. Lawmakers have two years to figure out how to do that, but it’s only one of the challenges they face.
MAX FOSTER, CNN CORRESPONDENT: This has just never been done before, unpicking 40 years of treaties and agreements, covering thousands of different subjects. The U.K. has just two years to extricate itself from the European Union.
SUBTITLE: What’s next after Article 50?
FOSTER: Vast negotiating teams from both sides will work round the clock to try to reach some sort of deal and they’re going to start by looking at the breakup. Some of the issues they’re going to have to tackle includes what they’re going to do with Brits living in Europe, what they’re going to do with Europeans living in the U.K.? How are they going to leave this trading bloc, the single European market? And will London keep its status as the go-to financial hub for euro trading?
The biggest problem though is what some E.U. officials see as a massive lingering bill. Britain should they say be paying billions of dollars for years to come into ongoing projects that they have a stake in.
Once they do reach the deal, 20 of the E.U. heads of states representing at least 65 percent of the total population need to approve it. Also, the U.K. parliament needs to approve it. And what if they don’t? Well, you could extend the negotiations, but all sides would have to agree to that.
The alternative would be Britain just leaving the European Union and the U.K. and will have to pull back on World Trade Organization rules.
Alongside all of this, they’re going to have to reach a new set of deals as well to establish a new relationship between the E.U. and the U.K. What about things like security, new trade deals? Enormous projects to consider alongside that main deal.
AZUZ: Up next, we’re coming face to face with a middle aged man who’s actually from the Middle Ages. He lived 700 years ago, but now, people can look into his eyes and see that he looks a lot like many folks do now.
Here’s what this is all about: the University of Cambridge reconstructed the face of a man who is buried in the 13th century. His skeleton was one of 400 others found under the old Divinity School of St. John’s College. The site was excavated a few years ago. It was one of the largest medieval hospital graveyards in Britain.
To better understand life at that time, researchers analyzed the man’s bones and reconstructed his face in an attempt to find out his life story. They say he was an ordinary poor man at that time, that he was probably a patient at the hospital where he was found, that his skeleton indicated he’d done a lot of physical labor in his life and that when he died, he was over 40 years.
PROFESSOR JOHN ROBB, UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE: (INAUDIBLE) one of Cambridge’s urban poor. It’s a group of people that is very hard to find out about from history, because historical records are based around mostly property. And if you didn’t have wealth or tax, then very often, you would not actually show up in historical records.
AZUZ: This was done as part of a project called After the Plague. It aims to humanize people from the past.
AZUZ (voice-over): Ten-second trivia:
Who painted La Bella Principessa, The Last Supper, and the Battle of Anghiari?
Michelangelo, Leonardo, Donatello or Raphael?
These are the works of Leonardo da Vinci, one of whose most famous paintings is the Mona Lisa.
AZUZ: OK. You’ve heard of the Mona Lisa. You probably haven’t heard of Lisa del Giocondo, whose portrait some scientists think was painted over in making the Mona Lisa. Pablo Picasso apparently painted over someone else’s portrait to create his work the Old Guitarist. Same thing for Vincent Van Gogh in painting Patch of Grass.
One thing these findings all have in common, they were discovered decades or centuries later using modern scientific instruments.
Here’s how some researchers solve or find historic mysteries of art.
PROF. AVIVA BURNSTOCK, HEAD OF COSNERVATOR & TECHNLOGY: THE COURTAULD INSTITUTE OF ART: A painting would change in the moment it’s made. And so, there’s no chance of restoring it to the way it looked when it was first made. But you can appreciate how it might have looked by doing the research that’s needed and then present it in the best it can be presented.
SUBTITLE: The Courtauld Institute of Art was established in 1932. It is the worlds’ leading center for the study of the conservation of art, pioneering new technologies to reveal the complex DNA of a painting.
BURNSTOCK: With these new tools, it’s become a little bit easier to find out more about painting techniques and to find out in more detail about materials. For example, use a handheld x-ray fluorescent spectrometer to look at areas of the painting and look at the kind of elements they contain.
We learned quite a lot from people x-raying pictures and x-rays will penetrate all the way through the painting. So, you can see aspects of the whole thickness of the picture and sometimes you can see the frame and the nails that had been used to hang the canvas and sometimes you can see reworkings in paints. So, you can see things that you can’t see on the surface.
There were different devices that we use for infrared photography. So, you can do an infrared photo in specially adoptive camera. You might see something beneath the varnish. You might see drawing underneath the paint lens.
And you might find a picture under another picture or drawing underneath the picture that’s been covered up with a completely different picture. There are always new discoveries to be made.
Each of these techniques tells you something different, to make you a good conservator, I think you need those elements.
Eventually, you know, everything changes and everything deteriorates, although we now use materials which we hope will last at least 100 years. Inevitably, pictures will need to be cared for. And those works have been cared for.
Now, we’ve retained them. We benefit from them. We can still see them.
And the things that have been very neglected, we’ve lost them. So, that’s why conservation is important.
AZUZ: If you are on our email list, you have known last night what was on today’s show. From our home page, just scroll down to “keep in touch” to sign up for our daily email.
Also from our home page, if you want to see the show transcript, while you see the show, just click the word “transcript” under the video. That will take you to where you can watch and read along at the same time. It’s amazing and a really good idea.
AZUZ: Now for a really questionable idea. Do you see this? It’s a design company’s concept to put the sky in sky scraper. It’s a floating building.
How does it float? We are so glad you asked.
What architects would do if they could is string up a skyscraper with high strength cabling and fasten it to an asteroid that’s orbiting the earth. They say it’d be lightweight. That it’d be solar powered. It can get its water from clouds. It’d also be strung up from an asteroid.
Its cost of construction, they say high. But that the skyscraper would also command record prices.
I guess they wouldn’t run out of space. But if demand were sky high, if tenants could scrape together the funds, and if they can get over the suspense of living suspended, maybe it’s not just a tall tale. Just as long as no one steps outside for a walk, unless his name is Luke.
I’m Carl Azuz and that’s “10 Out of 10”.
CNN 10 serves a growing audience interested in compact on-demand news broadcasts ideal for explanation seekers on the go or in the classroom. The show’s priority is to identify stories of international significance and then clearly describe why they’re making news, who is affected, and how the events fit into a complex, international society.
Thank you for using CNN 10

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March 30, 2017

This Thursday’s show begins with two stories concerning U.S. military forces in the Middle East. We’re defining “sanctuary cities” before exploring the political debate over them, and we’re introducing you to an engineer who’s been working for decades to create a concert hall with perfect sound.
CARL AZUZ, CNN 10 ANCHOR: Welcome to CNN 10 on this Thursday, March 30th. I’m Carl Azuz, reporting from CNN Center, and we’re happy to have you watching as the week rolls on.
We’re starting with a couple of reports concerning U.S. troops in the Middle East. First, more are serving there. There’s been a battle going on for the Iraqi city of Mosul since last October. It’s the last stronghold of the ISIS terrorist group in Iraq. American troops have been supporting Iraqi forces as they try to push ISIS out.
Soldiers with U.S. Army’s 82nd Airborne Division are deploying to give more help to the Iraqis. A U.S. defense official says the number of American troops going is in the low hundreds.
“The Military Times” reports that there are more than 6,000 U.S. troops now serving in Iraq and though they’re officially there to advise and assist Iraqi forces, some of the Americans are believed to be close to the fighting if not directly in it.
Another way the U.S. is supporting Iraq in the battle is through airpower. And on March 17th, at least 112 civilians were apparently killed by an airstrike. The U.S. military is currently investigating whether it was a U.S. plane that launched the strike in Western Mosul. It’s a densely populated part of the city and an Army lieutenant general says ISIS was fighting from the position, but that what’s not clear is they picked a place where there were civilians to lure the U.S., or if ISIS was using civilians as human shields. He says the enemy had a hand in the deaths, and that the U.S. military might have, too.
LT. GEN. STEPHEN TOWNSEND, TOP U.S. COMMANDER ON MOSUL STRIKE: If we didn’t strike in that area, I’d be telling you right now, it’s unlikely. But because we struck in that area, I think there’s a fair chance that we did it. My initial assessment is that we probably had a role in these casualties. Now, here’s what I don’t know — what I don’t know is: were they gathered there by the enemy?
ARWA DAMON, CNN SENIOR INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: The destruction here in western Mosul appears to be significantly more vast and widespread than it was in the eastern side. And you also see that there are a lot of these really narrow alleyways that winded deeper into the neighborhoods. This is one of the main challenges that the security forces are facing.
You barely see any civilians but you do see the traces of the life that was, of how bustling these particular areas would have normally been. And part of the challenge when it is civilian population is that even though the Iraqi government did, yes, encourage people to stay put in their homes, if they wanted to leave, they wouldn’t have been able to, because ISIS would not allow them to leave these neighborhoods. ISIS was holding everyone that live across this entire city as human shields.
AZUZ: U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions says that if an American city or state is hoping to get money or grants from the federal government, it has to comply with federal immigration law. This is part of the Trump administration effort to increase pressure on America’s “sanctuary cities”, cities that shelter people who were in the U.S. illegally.
NICK VALENCIA, CNN CORRESPONDEN: The one thing that you need to know about sanctuary cities is that they’re not necessarily illegal designation or even a legislative one. They’re given that label because of the perception that they are not enforcing federal immigration law. There are more than 200 cities or jurisdictions in the United States that are labeled sanctuary cities. They’re called sanctuary cities because the mayors of these cities or leaders of these jurisdictions do not require local law enforcement to ask a person’s immigration status when they’re detained or they’re arrested.
SUBTITLE: In 2015, more than 200 state and local jurisdictions did not honor requests from Immigration and Customs Enforcement to detain individuals.
AZUZ: The policy that requires states to show they’re complying with federal law in order to receive federal funding was put in place by the Obama administration last summer. The Trump administration says that if a city is not enforcing U.S. immigration laws and cooperating with the federal government on the issue, it’s making the nation less safe. And state officials who support the federal policy say enforcing it will help the address the problem of illegal immigration.
Mayors of these sanctuary cities say their areas are safe because they allow undocumented immigrants to go to school, get medical care and report crimes without the fear of being deported. They say the cities will be less safe if the government takes away federal funding for their police departments.
The Trump administration hasn’t named the cities it will go after for defying the policy and it hasn’t said what funds it would withhold or try to get back if sanctuary cities don’t cooperate.
AZUZ (voice-over): Ten-second trivia:
The pinna, the malleus, and the stapes are all parts of what?
An ear, a ship, a drum, or a knee?
If you’re a mammal and you are, you have all of these as parts of your ear.
AZUZ: With these ears of ours, we’ve heard Beethoven, Chopin, Debussy. Many of us haven’t heard of Rob Harris. And yet, for 35 years, he’s been trying to create the perfect place for us to hear those composers, a concert hall with perfect sound.
Listen carefully. Lend us your ears to what happens when a masters degree in sound and vibration meets a bachelors in physics.
ROB HARRIS, ACOUSTIC DESIGNER: This is one of the best concert halls in London, but it’s partly because there are quite a few halls which look beautiful but they sound a little disappointing.
The Albert Hall was built as a spectacle house, not really as a concert hall, so there are just too many people in the Albert Hall; people are too far away and it’s just not loud enough.
The Coliseum is an example of a hall which isn’t perfect acoustically but it’s such a beautiful room that it’s all part of the experience.
The Barbican is actually a very wide hall but not very deep. And what we know and what we can see in this hall around is want halls that are actually quite narrow and deeper.
SUBTITLE: Rob has spent over three decades designing concert halls in 12 different countries.
He is considered to have some of the best ears in the world.
HARRIS: This hall follows a very successful precedent, it’s a bit like a double cube — one cube in front of the other, because what we’ve discovered is that as well as the direct sounds coming from me to you, the sound bounces off the floor, the walls and the ceiling, and for music, it’s really important we get these reflections into the ears quite soon, from the sides. And this rectangular form was very good for providing those reflections towards the ears of the audience.
SUBTITLE: Auralization allows designers to hear a hall before it’s built.
HARRIS: This new technique of Auralization, which is as bit like acoustic equipment to visualize action means that people could hear what a hall is going to sound like before it’s actually built.
There’s a huge amount of science to define it, but it is a real step forward in communicating, if you like, the language of the acoustic design. Rather than having to say, oh, well, the EDT Time at 500 hertz, optic band is 1.42 seconds, you know, you can say listen to this.
HARRIS: The key reason for people to gather at a concert hall is to enjoy music in a very special way. So, it’s absolute fundamental to the experience that there’s one for acoustic for them to enjoy the music, and also importantly, the great acoustic for the musicians to performing because if I think they’re performing in a great sound, then they , of course, enjoy it and perform better.
AZUZ: A news reporter recently wanted to bring his audience some clips of the Elite Eight of March Madness. But the NCAA wouldn’t give his station permission to use video highlights. So, Eric Alvarez made his own, with stuff he says he found at his desk. I love how it says “dramatization” at the bottom, just so you know.
Maybe these weren’t all the exact mascots of the teams themselves, but they helped tell the story with clarity, conciseness and, of course, creativity. Who says news reporting isn’t the same as reenacting? Maybe he’s a bit of a ham, but he never broke character or characters in telling the toy story. There’s no denying they got the points across and all in all, you got to him props!
I’m Carl Azuz for CNN 10. Thanks for watching.
CNN 10 serves a growing audience interested in compact on-demand news broadcasts ideal for explanation seekers on the go or in the classroom. The show’s priority is to identify stories of international significance and then clearly describe why they’re making news, who is affected, and how the events fit into a complex, international society.
Thank you for using CNN 10

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March 3, 2017

Why is the Iraqi city of Mosul significant to the ISIS terrorists who control it and the Iraqi-led troops who are fighting to get it back? An explanation is our first topic today on CNN 10. Afterward, we’re taking you to the region of Hong Kong to examine potential tensions over an upcoming election. And we’re putting one of our reporters in a tank to see what it’s like for a city slicker to handle historic artillery.
1. In what nation would you find the ancient Assyrian city of Nimrud, much of whose cultural heritage has been reduced to rubble by terrorists?
2. Retired astronaut Mark Kelly is supporting a company’s effort to carry people into the stratosphere using what type of vehicle?
3. How many speeches has U.S. President Donald Trump delivered to a joint session of Congress?
4. The term “ring of fire” was used to describe a natural event that occurred on Sunday but wasn’t related to earthquakes. What kind of event was it?
5. Where would you find Grimaldi, Copernicus, and the Sea of Clouds?
6. What is the Terraformer, which is part of a natural disaster research facility at the University of Florida?
7. China is currently experiencing its fifth epidemic since 2013 of what dangerous virus?
8. The Global Slavery Index estimates that two-thirds of the world’s slaves are located in what continent?
9. The United Nations says 4,000 people per day have been fleeing what war-torn, Middle Eastern city?
10. Hong Kong, which is a Special Administrative Region of China, was once part of what other country from 1842 to 1997?
CARL AZUZ, CNN 10 ANCHOR: On a scale of one to CNN 10, Fridays are awesome! I’m not sure that makes sense, but we’re glad you’re watching anyway. I’m Carl Azuz at the CNN Center.
First today, we’re taking you to the Middle East. The northern part of Iraq is where you’ll find the city of Mosul. On one side of the ongoing battle for it, ISIS terrorists who took over Mosul when the Iraqi army fled in 2014. On the other side, Iraqi troops who were fighting to get it back, along with the help of U.S. and other international forces.
Mosul fell to ISIS in just four days. The battle to force ISIS out has been going on since October. The terrorists have dug tunnels. They’ve set traps. They’ve rigged cars with explosives. The Iraqi-led troops have heavy weapons, tens of thousands more fighters and the support of U.S. air power.
The civilians trapped in between had been fleeing from the city in record numbers since the fighting began. The United Nations says 4,000 people a day have been displaced by the battle since February 19th. It’s not known how much of Mosul will be habitable when the fight for it ends. But as that end approaches, Ben Wedeman examines why this one city is so significant to both ISIS and Iraq.
BEN WEDEMAN, CNN SENIOR INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: The one thing you need to know about the fight for Mosul is that this battle could decide the fate of ISIS.
The extremists seized control of Mosul, Iraq’s second largest city in June 2014. What followed was a series of lightning conquest in Iraq and Syria that brought ISIS to the attention of the world. It was in Mosul that ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi declared his so-called caliphate. His supporters favored slogan was that the Islamic State is here to stay and will spread.
Well, what a difference two and a half years make. The tide has turned. Iraqi forces have seized one city after another. They’ve already taken control of the eastern part of Mosul and are now pressing ahead in the west.
The area controlled by Baghdadi’s so-called caliphate is steadily shrinking. The caliphate’s appeal is dimming. ISIS no longer puts out slick propaganda videos crowing about the good life in Mosul.
The war to destroy ISIS, however, is far from over. The group still controls pockets in Iraq and large parts of Syria, and its hardcore supporters are likely to fight to the death.
But the loss of Mosul, the largest city, once under ISIS control, will be a deadly blow.
AZUZ (voice-over): Ten-second trivia:
Which of these locations was once part of the United Kingdom?
Macau, Hong Kong, Taiwan, or Guam?
In 1842, China ceded Hong Kong to Great Britain, but Hong Kong has been a special administrative region of China since 1997.
AZUZ: The fact that Hong Kong is a special administrative region of China means it’s not an independent country. Under the 1997 agreement, China promised it would not force its socialist economic system on Hong Kong, but though the region has significant amount of autonomy, it’s still limited by Chinese influence. China’s communist government has ultimate control of what goes on in Hong Kong.
Some people in Hong Kong say things should stay that way. Others have called for full independence from China, which is something China is not willing to grant.
Tensions over this sometimes flare when there’s an election.
KRISTIE LU STOUT, CNN CORRESPONDENT: It’s campaign season here in Hong Kong, but the election is hardly democratic.
SUBTITLE: Selecting Hong Kong’s leader.
STOUT: An election committee of only 1,200 people in a city of 7 million will be tasked for choosing the next leader and critics point out that the real decision is being made by Beijing.
Now, changing the current system, that was the key demand of the 2014 umbrella movement, but that was not granted.
CY Leung is the current leader of Hong Kong and he won with just 689 votes. His former deputy, Carrie Lam, is now reading to succeed him.
The election committee is tasked with choosing the next chief executive. It’s been described as being broadly representative, but it is dominated by pro-Beijing interest.
The vote is set to take place on March 26th, and if no single candidate emerges with 600 votes in round one, it then moves to round two, a runoff vote between the top two candidates. That’s widely expected to be Lam and John Tsang, the former financial secretary of Hong Kong. Mr. Tsang, he’s been nicknamed Mr. Pringles for his signature mustache, is more popular than Lam, according to the polls.
In a runoff, pro-democracy lawmakers may be the kingmakers. They control 25 percent of the vote and Tsang might need them to win. But ultimately, the choice lies with Beijing and both Lam and Tsang has sought the support of the central government.
And their appointment is still dependent on Beijing approval. Now, the winner will serve until 2022, and by then, the other 99 percent of Hong Kongers hope they will also have their direct say.
AZUZ: Potential gift ideas for thrill seekers: diving with great white sharks in Australia, ice swimming, which is just what it sounds like in Finland, paragliding by Neuschwanstein Castle in Germany.
But for someone who’s more oriented toward heavy artillery and wants to stay closer to home, how about tank driving in Texas. Oh, don’t worry, you’re not just limited to driving a tank. It’s like a full-on simulation of World War II, but without any casualties, hopefully.
CNN sent its U.N. correspondent Richard Roth for a test ride.
SUBTITLE: You can drive a WWII-era tank in Texas.
ROTH: I’m from Manhattan, I don’t have a driver’s license, and I’m a bleeder and I drive this tank.
ROTH: All right. Let’s do it.
DEGIDIO: Let’s do it.
You go up first.
ROTH: I’m so glad I wore a business suit. Did I tell you flat seats should disqualify me?
Ready for service.
DEGIDIO: All right, Richard, it’s go time.
ROTH: Oh my God, look at that drop.
DEGIDIO: Let it roll. Give it a little gas. Here we go.
ROTH: I feel like we are going to fall straight down in this tank.
Sometimes they say diplomacy is best backed by military force. So here we go up this hill.
Now those sound like gun shots.
DEGIDIO: Yes, they’re shooting at you.
You’re pretty much going to have the gas pedal all the way forward.
ROTH: Oh my god, I blew it.
How did I do?
DEGIDIO: I was a lot worried at the beginning.
ROTH: Now, you tell me.
DEGIDIO: Yes, well, it’s over now.
ROTH: So, we’re done here, right, Todd?
DEGIDIO: Oh, no, no, no.
Range is hot, pull.
DEGIDIO: I think you killed the mountain.
ROTH: Oh my God. It was so hot.
DEGIDIO: Yes, it’s hot. This is flame thrower.
AZUZ: More like artillery.
Getting puns together could be an up-Churchill battle and that’s not the only deterrent for those who wouldn’t have a blast. But if you’re looking to hatch a plan for someone who never threads feeling armorous, is this a good idea? Sure, man.
I’m Carl Azuz, and we tank you for watching CNN 10.
CNN 10 serves a growing audience interested in compact on-demand news broadcasts ideal for explanation seekers on the go or in the classroom. The show’s priority is to identify stories of international significance and then clearly describe why they’re making news, who is affected, and how the events fit into a complex, international society.
Thank you for using CNN 10

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January 26, 2017

Israeli settlements in the West Bank, major changes to U.S. immigration policy, and a new high note for the Dow Jones Industrial Average: These are our main stories today on CNN 10. We’ll test your stock market knowledge, and we’ll explain how you can name a roach in the name of love.
CARL AZUZ, CNN 10 ANCHOR: Global news for a global audience. This is CNN 10.
Welcome, everyone. I’m Carl Azuz.
The Middle Eastern nation of Israel is planning to expand its settlements, its housing areas in the West Bank. We start today by explaining why that’s significant.
The West Bank is a disputed area of land in the ongoing conflict between Israelis and Palestinians. It used to be controlled by the nation of Jordan. But during a brief war, in 1967, Israel captured the land and claimed it as its own. Today, Israel says part of the land is historically theirs, part is politically theirs. It uses some of the land to provide security and it says it needs the space to give more housing to its people.
The Palestinians in the region say the land is theirs and that it was stolen. They’re hoping to have the West Bank as part of a future country of their own. And Palestinian officials say Israel’s decision to build new settlements there would threaten the region’s security and put an obstacle in front of any efforts to achieve peace between Palestinians and Israelis.
Timing may factor in the Israel’s decision. The U.S. has historically been an Israeli ally. But the Obama administration was strongly opposed to Israel’s construction of new settlements. Now, with the Trump administration in power, international experts expect that the U.S. will more supportive of Israel’s settlements.
Up next, major changes in the U.S. government’s immigration policy.
DONALD TRUMP, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: I just signed two executive orders that will save thousands of lives, millions of jobs, and billions and billions of dollars.
AZUZ: One of them that President Trump announced yesterday has to do with sanctuary cities. These are cities that shelter people who are in the U.S. illegally. For example, police forces in these cities might not help U.S. government officials find and deport undocumented immigrants, unless they’ve committed certain crimes. President Trump wants to punish these cities for not cooperating with the federal government and he’d do that by taking away certain funds they get from the government.
“The Wall Street Journal” reports that the president’s ability to this is limited without congressional approval, but that he could slow down the process of giving these cities certain grants.
Critics of the executive actions say President Trump doesn’t have the constitutional authority to carry it out and that pressuring cities to deport illegal immigrants could tear families apart.
The other actions the president announced yesterday: add thousands of U.S. border patrol agents and thousands of other government officials to deport undocumented immigrants. This would require congressional approval to pay for.
And something the president repeatedly promised to do while campaigning — build a physical border wall between the U.S. and Mexico. President Trump says this will help the U.S. get back control of its borders and that the wall would help Mexico as well by discouraging illegal immigration from countries south of Mexico.
Mr. Trump plans to use U.S. government funds to pay for the construction and then get Mexico to pay America back. That’s something Mexican leaders have said they won’t do and critics say the wall would be a monumental waste of U.S. taxpayer money.
JASON CARROLL, CNN CORRESPONDENT: What would it take to build a wall on the border between the United States and Mexico?
You’re talking about an area 1,954 miles, stretching across California, Arizona, New Mexico and right here in Texas — just about 100 yards away from Mexico.
We spoke to civil engineers, architects and academics. They all say the wall can be built. It can be done. The question is, how?
The first thing one has to do is, before you go up, you have to go down and build a foundation. This will help provide support for the wall. In order to prevent people from tunneling under it, it should be at least five feet deep.
The second thing one must consider is what do you use to build the wall? What materials do you go after? Well, how about cinderblock?
The upside is it’s strong; it’s secure; it’s readily available. The downside is, it’s labor intensive to have to stack every single brick in order to build the wall. So, our experts say that option doesn’t work.
There is another option. Using poured concrete on site. That’s what they did when they built the Hoover Dam. The downside to that is when you poor concrete in warmer climates like along many of these border states, experts say what you could end up with is a weaker wall, because the concrete might not dry correctly, meaning a wall that could end up crumbling.
So what could be the answer here?
The experts that we spoke to say the way to go is pre-casted cement wall panels. Those panels will be lined side by side, sort of like what you might see on a highway. Each panel would be about 20 feet high. Again, five feet below ground. About ten feet wide and eight inches thick.
Again, that wall would be stretching some 2,000 miles, and our expert says it would require 339 million cubic feet of concrete. And that’s just for the panels. You’re also going to need reinforced steel. At least 5 billion pounds.
So what about the estimated cost?
Because it hasn’t been done before, let’s use those highway panels as an example. They cost about $40 a square foot. That would end up costing about $10.5 billion. Sounds like a lot of money, is a lot of money.
But again, remember, Donald Trump says the U.S. government wouldn’t end up footing the bill on this one. It would be Mexico.
And what about the timing on all of this? How long would it take to build? According to our expert, if you’re ambitious, you could get it done within a presidential term, four years.
Jason Carroll, CNN, McAllen, Texas.
AZUZ (voice-over): Ten-second trivia:
What do Apple, Home Depot, McDonald’s and Walt Disney have in common? Are they all based in California, part of the Dow Jones Industrial Average, part of the NASDAQ, or none of these?
All four of these companies are included in the Dow, an average of 30 major U.S. stocks.
AZUZ: The Dow is one indicator of the health of the U.S. economy. It’s not the only one. But a rising stock market is usually seen as a good economic sign. And yesterday, the Dow hit a high note: 20,000, for the first time ever.
This number shows that the value of stocks in the average increased. The fact that it’s climbed this high shows that stock market investors are optimistic about the direction the economy is going in.
Experts credit the work of two U.S. leaders for the climb.
One, President Trump. Analysts believe his plans to cut taxes, increased spending on roads and bridges and reduced regulations on business could help increase corporate profits and help the American economy growth faster.
Two, former President Obama. Analysts believe the economy he left behind, which saw years of job growth and a decreasing unemployment rate also contributed to the Dow’s rise, since the great recession brought it down in early 2009. The recovery from that was considered to be slow. But the economy’s health has noticeably improved.
REPORTER: It was mid-November 1972. This hit was number one on the Billboard charts. Richard Nixon had just won reelection and on Wall Street, traders marked Dow 1,000, with IBM, the growth stock of the day, leading the charge. It was the first truly mega Wall Street milestone.
It took the Dow 27 years to hit 10,000, in March 1999.
REPORTER: Cher’s hit “Believe” was topping the charts. Stocks were truly a force of nature back then. And at the end NYSE, traders went nuts.
STEPHEN GUILFOYLE, PRESIDENT, SARGE986: That was kind of a big deal. At that time, there were still a lot of people down here. We probably still have between us and the Amex, maybe 7,500 people. So, at that time, yes, it was confetti in the air, with everybody wearing baseball caps.
REPORTER: A little event called the global financial crisis leveled stocks in 2008, sending the Dow plunging below 7,000. But those with the stomach for rest were rewarded when stocks roared back.
President Trump’s victory in November sparked a powerful rally, bringing the Dow less than a point away from 20,000. Stocks turned choppy. The milestone remained elusive.
Some may play down these benchmarks, but soaring stocks can boost consumer confidence, and for traders on the New York Stock Exchange, big round numbers remain magical.
AZUZ: Nothing says “I love you” like naming a roach. At New York City’s Bronx Zoo, love is in the air as Valentine’s Day nears. What they’re allowing people to do is to name a Madagascar hissing cockroach after a loved one, or as they put it, a not-so loved one.
Since the annual event started in 2011, more than 11,000 roaches had been named. For 10 bucks, you get a certificate. For 50, you can get that, some chocolates and a flash roach doll. Of course, the lucky lady or gentleman might hate that approach. They might respond with reproach, or they might broach the subject of a breakup.
On the other leg, if they have their antennae out for something unusual, and this doesn’t make them hiss-terical or encroach on any other plans, maybe they’ll find it truly roachmantic.
I’m Carl Azuz.
CNN 10 serves a growing audience interested in compact on-demand news broadcasts ideal for explanation seekers on the go or in the classroom. The show’s priority is to identify stories of international significance and then clearly describe why they’re making news, who is affected, and how the events fit into a complex, international society.
Thank you for using CNN 10

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January 19, 2017

Today’s show explains a U.N. report that 2016 was the warmest year on record, though that’s not definitive in every measurement. We also give you an overview of President Barack Obama’s last news conference as U.S. leader, and we take a look at the World Economic Forum meeting through the perspective of a skier assessing risk.
CARL AZUZ, CNN 10 ANCHOR: Hi. I’m Carl Azuz for CNN 10. Give us 10 minutes, we’ll break down international news for you. Thanks for watching this Thursday.
We’re starting with report from the World Meteorological Organization. It’s part of the United Nations that studies climate. And it says that 2016 was the Earth’s warmest year on record since scientists started maintaining temporary records in the 1880s.
Researchers say that 2016 was seven hundredths of one degree Fahrenheit warmer than 2015. That was the previous record holder.
The U.N. organization says it used several sources like NASA, to come up with its data, though one of them, the United Kingdom’s Met Office says the temperature increase it measured was within its margin of error, according to the BBC. So, the record is not certain across all measurements.
One big factor in the warm temperatures was a powerful El Nino, a natural warming of Pacific Ocean surface temperatures that affected the climate from 2015 to 2016. But a scientist from NASA says greenhouse gas emissions, which are given off by human activity, are responsible for warming temperatures in the long-term. Because of the recent El Nino event has subsided, scientists do not expect 2017 to break a new warming record.
Yesterday afternoon, U.S. President Barack Obama gave his final news conference while in office. It was likely the last time he’d speak in public as president.
A lot of subjects were covered, increasingly strained U.S. relations with Israel and Russia, the relationship between the White House and the media, a recent move to reduce the sentences of more prisoners than any other U.S. president. It all came up.
And President Obama was asked about his successor, President-elect Donald Trump, and some of the controversies he’s been involved in. The outgoing leader said he and the incoming one had had constructive and sometimes lengthy conversations. But Mr. Obama said the best piece of advice he could give to Mr. Trump was to rely on others around him, as the presidency isn’t a job that anyone can do alone.
BARACK OBAMA, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: I believe in this country. I believe in the American people.
I believe that people are more good than bad. I believe tragic things happen. I think there’s evil in the world. But I think that, at the end of the day, if we work hard and if we’re true to those things in us that feel true and feel right, that the world gets a little better each time.
That’s what this presidency has tried to be about, and I see in the young people I’ve worked with.
At my core, I think we’re going to be OK. We just had to fight for it. We have to work for it, and not take it for granted. And I know that you will help us do that.
Thank you very much, press corps. Good luck.
AZUZ (voice-over): Ten-second trivia:
In terms of when it gained independence, which of these countries is oldest? Austria, Morocco, Brazil, or Switzerland?
The Swiss Confederation got its independence from the Holy Roman Empire in 1499, making it the oldest independent nation on this list.
AZUZ: Every winter, there’s an international meeting in Davos, Switzerland, the World Economic Forum. It’s an organization that includes politicians, businesspeople, scholars, sometimes actors, basically movers and shakers. They aimed to improve the world by addressing issues like poverty, conflict and the global economy. But the event has also been criticized as an elitist meeting that does more talking than actual problem-solving.
Either way, the meeting that’s going on right now is looking at the uncertainty of the year ahead, like an investor or a skier might look at risk and then try to minimize it.
JOHN DEFTERIOS, CNNMONEY EMERGING MARKETS EDITOR: 2016 was a year of surprises. The word here in Davos is that 2017 could present similar challenges.
So, what are some of the risks facing the global business community? Something that could take a nice outing and turn it into an injury, steady growth into a global recession?
As the political and business elites gather here in Davos, 2017 could shape up to be a year of extreme risks, and here are the biggest:
U.S. going off the path and into the trees where there’s less visibility.
All eyes, if you will, will be on President Trump. Will he blaze his own trail when it comes to trade? U.S. involvement within the NATO alliance, and how about the U.S., for example, in the Middle East?
How about Chinese moguls? Economic relations with Beijing are always a little bit bumpy. How tough will the moguls get this year?
Europe potentially going off a cliff.
One major obstacle here in Davos is the widening gap between the rich and the poor, and the resentment that’s creating within the European Union. There are major elections this year. France, Germany and the Netherlands, and the results could push Europe over the political cliff (ph).
So, I’ve chosen the ultimate route, slow and steady, hard work but less risky, with the ultimate goal of avoiding disaster in 2017.
SUBTITLE: These are crashes are helping researches make drones safer.
These experiments are helping predict injuries caused by drone collisions.
Dummies are rigged with sensors that measure the force of a crash.
And determine if a collision will cause a neck or brain injury.
The research is key for drone regulation in the U.S.
Researchers are hoping to make drones safer.
AZUZ: Facing challenges concerning military conflicts, political opposition, foreign and domestic criticism, security threats, not to mention governing a country, it is no wonder why the American presidency is said to cause people to age faster, at least physically. But does that necessarily mean that U.S. leaders live shorter lives than the rest of us.
JEANNE MOOS, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): It’s that time again. Time for news organization to roll out those before and after photos to show how much our departing president has aged. It’s been dubbed “the White House effect” and it usually involves wrinkles and white hair, or as Michelle Obama puts it —
MOOS: Maybe you’ve heard there’s a formula for presidential aging.
MICHAEL ROIZEN, INTERNIST: A typical president ages two years for every year they’re in office.
And there really is one reason, it’s the stress.
S. JAY OLHANSKY, LONGTIME EXPERT, AUTHOR: No, it’s not true. They do not age at twice the normal rate.
MOOS: Longevity expert Professor J. Olhansky disputes Dr. Michael Roizen’s formula.
OLHANSKY: Perhaps the graying of the hair and wrinkling of the skin may grow more rapidly as a result of stress, but it’s certainly not shortening their lives.
MOOS: Professor Olhansky says research shows presidents live way longer than regular citizens. Sure presidents look like they’re going downhill in photos.
OLHANSKY: But guess what? If you take a picture of anybody eight years apart, you’re going to see the same changes in the rest of us as you see in the presidents.
MOOS (on camera): Really?
So what?
That’s me eight years ago. Do you think the grueling life of a TV humor reporter has taken a toll?
(voice-over): Wonder how long it will take 70-year-old Donald Trump’s hair to change shades once he’s president.
Though Michelle Obama seems immune from the White House effect —
BARACK OBAMA: The only way to date her in photos is by looking at me. Here we are in 2008, here we are a few years later and this one is from two weeks ago.
AZUZ: So, in all fairness, how about the aging of a CNN STUDENT NEWS and now, CNN 10 anchor? Is age just a number? Certainly, an age old question, which is itself a popular adage.
Whatever you think, the only thing I’ll tell you about my own age is the same truth I would have told you eight years ago — I’m older than your brother but younger than your dad.
Spend another 10 minutes with us tomorrow. We’ve got a special edition set up looking at the U.S. presidential inauguration, specifically the all-important oath of office.
I’m Carl Azuz.
CNN 10 serves a growing audience interested in compact on-demand news broadcasts ideal for explanation seekers on the go or in the classroom. The show’s priority is to identify stories of international significance and then clearly describe why they’re making news, who is affected, and how the events fit into a complex, international society.
Thank you for using CNN 10

Read more: